The brain is a signal processor that receive action potentials and chemical messengers, which either cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or penetrate the cerebral parenchyma in regions devoid of BBB as well as sense chemical, physical, and mechanical signals. It treat these signals and transmit an output for bodily adaptation extremely quickly and more slowly using neural and vascular routes, respectively.
Surgical interventions can be carried out using either general anesthesia, that is, a medically induced coma, or acupuncture, that is, performing tasks in concious subjects naturally anesthetized. In the latter case, the brain that is capable of synthesizing opioids and antalgics is stimulated from acupoints that are known since 2~millenaries. In addition to a better confort for the patient who avoids coma, the cost for the health service is much lower. The lecture will emphasize signaling from a given acupoint to the brain and the corresponding mathematical model.